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The application as an anesthetic turned out to be one of the few safe uses of cocaine, and as reports of addiction and overdose began to filter in from many places in the world, Freud's medical reputation became somewhat tarnished.
The concept of the unconscious was central to Freud's account of the mind. Freud believed that while poets and thinkers had long known of the existence of the unconscious, he had ensured that it received scientific recognition in the field of psychology.
Freud states explicitly that his concept of the unconscious as he first formulated it was based on the theory of repression.
He postulated a cycle in which ideas are repressed, but remain in the mind, removed from consciousness yet operative, then reappear in consciousness under certain circumstances.
The postulate was based upon the investigation of cases of hysteria , which revealed instances of behaviour in patients that could not be explained without reference to ideas or thoughts of which they had no awareness and which analysis revealed were linked to the real or imagined repressed sexual scenarios of childhood.
In his later re-formulations of the concept of repression in his paper 'Repression' Standard Edition XIV Freud introduced the distinction in the unconscious between primary repression linked to the universal taboo on incest 'innately present originally' and repression 'after expulsion' that was a product of an individual's life history 'acquired in the course of the ego's development' in which something that was at one point conscious is rejected or eliminated from consciousness.
In his account of the development and modification of his theory of unconscious mental processes he sets out in his paper 'The Unconscious' Standard Edition XIV , Freud identifies the three perspectives he employs: the dynamic, the economic and the topographical.
The dynamic perspective concerns firstly the constitution of the unconscious by repression and secondly the process of "censorship" which maintains unwanted, anxiety inducing thoughts as such.
Here Freud is drawing on observations from his earliest clinical work in the treatment of hysteria. In the economic perspective the focus is upon the trajectories of the repressed contents "the vicissitudes of sexual impulses" as they undergo complex transformations in the process of both symptom formation and normal unconscious thought such as dreams and slips of the tongue.
Whereas both these former perspectives focus on the unconscious as it is about to enter consciousness, the topographical perspective represents a shift in which the systemic properties of the unconscious, its characteristic processes and modes of operation such as condensation and displacement, are placed in the foreground.
In his later work, notably in The Ego and the Id , a second topography is introduced comprising id, ego and super-ego , which is superimposed on the first without replacing it.
As such, from the economic perspective, the id is the prime source of psychical energy and from the dynamic perspective it conflicts with the ego  and the super-ego  which, genetically speaking, are diversifications of the id.
Freud believed the function of dreams is to preserve sleep by representing as fulfilled wishes that would otherwise awaken the dreamer.
In Freud's theory dreams are instigated by the daily occurrences and thoughts of everyday life. In what Freud called the "dream-work", these "secondary process" thoughts "word presentations" , governed by the rules of language and the reality principle, become subject to the "primary process" of unconscious thought "thing presentations" governed by the pleasure principle, wish gratification and the repressed sexual scenarios of childhood.
Because of the disturbing nature of the latter and other repressed thoughts and desires which may have become linked to them, the dream-work operates a censorship function, disguising by distortion, displacement and condensation the repressed thoughts so as to preserve sleep.
In the clinical setting, Freud encouraged free association to the dream's manifest content, as recounted in the dream narrative, so as to facilitate interpretative work on its latent content — the repressed thoughts and fantasies — and also on the underlying mechanisms and structures operative in the dream-work.
As Freud developed his theoretical work on dreams he went beyond his theory of dreams as wish-fulfillments to arrive at an emphasis on dreams as "nothing other than a particular form of thinking.
It is the dream-work that creates that form, and it alone is the essence of dreaming". Freud's theory of psychosexual development proposes that, following on from the initial polymorphous perversity of infantile sexuality, the sexual "drives" pass through the distinct developmental phases of the oral , the anal , and the phallic.
Though these phases then give way to a latency stage of reduced sexual interest and activity from the age of five to puberty, approximately , they leave, to a greater or lesser extent, a "perverse" and bisexual residue which persists during the formation of adult genital sexuality.
Freud argued that neurosis or perversion could be explained in terms of fixation or regression to these phases whereas adult character and cultural creativity could achieve a sublimation of their perverse residue.
After Freud's later development of the theory of the Oedipus complex this normative developmental trajectory becomes formulated in terms of the child's renunciation of incestuous desires under the fantasised threat of or phantasised fact of, in the case of the girl castration.
Freud hoped to prove that his model was universally valid and turned to ancient mythology and contemporary ethnography for comparative material arguing that totemism reflected a ritualized enactment of a tribal Oedipal conflict.
Freud proposed that the human psyche could be divided into three parts: Id, ego and super-ego. Freud discussed this model in the essay Beyond the Pleasure Principle , and fully elaborated upon it in The Ego and the Id , in which he developed it as an alternative to his previous topographic schema i.
The id is the completely unconscious, impulsive, childlike portion of the psyche that operates on the "pleasure principle" and is the source of basic impulses and drives; it seeks immediate pleasure and gratification.
Freud acknowledged that his use of the term Id das Es , "the It" derives from the writings of Georg Groddeck. When overburdened or threatened by its tasks, it may employ defence mechanisms including denial , repression, undoing, rationalization, and displacement.
This concept is usually represented by the "Iceberg Model". Freud compared the relationship between the ego and the id to that between a charioteer and his horses: the horses provide the energy and drive, while the charioteer provides direction.
Freud believed that the human psyche is subject to two conflicting drives: the life drive or libido and the death drive.
The life drive was also termed "Eros" and the death drive "Thanatos", although Freud did not use the latter term; "Thanatos" was introduced in this context by Paul Federn.
In Beyond the Pleasure Principle , Freud inferred the existence of a death drive. Its premise was a regulatory principle that has been described as "the principle of psychic inertia", "the Nirvana principle",  and "the conservatism of instinct".
Its background was Freud's earlier Project for a Scientific Psychology , where he had defined the principle governing the mental apparatus as its tendency to divest itself of quantity or to reduce tension to zero.
Freud had been obliged to abandon that definition, since it proved adequate only to the most rudimentary kinds of mental functioning, and replaced the idea that the apparatus tends toward a level of zero tension with the idea that it tends toward a minimum level of tension.
Freud in effect readopted the original definition in Beyond the Pleasure Principle , this time applying it to a different principle.
He asserted that on certain occasions the mind acts as though it could eliminate tension entirely, or in effect to reduce itself to a state of extinction; his key evidence for this was the existence of the compulsion to repeat.
Examples of such repetition included the dream life of traumatic neurotics and children's play. In the phenomenon of repetition, Freud saw a psychic trend to work over earlier impressions, to master them and derive pleasure from them, a trend was prior to the pleasure principle but not opposed to it.
In addition to that trend, there was also a principle at work that was opposed to, and thus "beyond" the pleasure principle. If repetition is a necessary element in the binding of energy or adaptation, when carried to inordinate lengths it becomes a means of abandoning adaptations and reinstating earlier or less evolved psychic positions.
By combining this idea with the hypothesis that all repetition is a form of discharge, Freud reached the conclusion that the compulsion to repeat is an effort to restore a state that is both historically primitive and marked by the total draining of energy: death.
In his essay "Mourning and Melancholia", Freud drew a distinction between mourning, painful but an inevitable part of life, and "melancholia", his term for pathological refusal of a mourner to " decathect " from the lost one.
Freud claimed that, in normal mourning, the ego was responsible for narcissistically detaching the libido from the lost one as a means of self-preservation, but that in "melancholia", prior ambivalence towards the lost one prevents this from occurring.
Suicide, Freud hypothesized, could result in extreme cases, when unconscious feelings of conflict became directed against the mourner's own ego.
Initiating what became the first debate within psychoanalysis on femininity, Karen Horney of the Berlin Institute set out to challenge Freud's account of the development of feminine sexuality.
Rejecting Freud's theories of the feminine castration complex and penis envy , Horney argued for a primary femininity and penis envy as a defensive formation rather than arising from the fact, or "injury", of biological asymmetry as Freud held.
Horney had the influential support of Melanie Klein and Ernest Jones who coined the term " phallocentrism " in his critique of Freud's position.
In defending Freud against this critique, feminist scholar Jacqueline Rose has argued that it presupposes a more normative account of female sexual development than that given by Freud.
She notes that Freud moved from a description of the little girl stuck with her 'inferiority' or 'injury' in the face of the anatomy of the little boy to an account in his later work which explicitly describes the process of becoming 'feminine' as an 'injury' or 'catastrophe' for the complexity of her earlier psychic and sexual life.
According to Freud, "Elimination of clitoral sexuality is a necessary precondition for the development of femininity, since it is immature and masculine in its nature.
In , he stated that clitoral orgasms are purely an adolescent phenomenon and that, upon reaching puberty, the proper response of mature women is a change-over to vaginal orgasms, meaning orgasms without any clitoral stimulation.
This theory has been criticized on the grounds that Freud provided no evidence for this basic assumption, and because it made many women feel inadequate when they could not achieve orgasm via vaginal intercourse alone.
Freud regarded the monotheistic God as an illusion based upon the infantile emotional need for a powerful, supernatural pater familias. He maintained that religion — once necessary to restrain man's violent nature in the early stages of civilization — in modern times, can be set aside in favor of reason and science.
Freud argues the belief of a supernatural protector serves as a buffer from man's "fear of nature" just as the belief in an afterlife serves as a buffer from man's fear of death.
The core idea of the work is that all of religious belief can be explained through its function to society, not for its relation to the truth.
This is why, according to Freud, religious beliefs are "illusions". In Civilization and Its Discontents , he quotes his friend Romain Rolland , who described religion as an "oceanic sensation", but says he never experienced this feeling.
Moreover, he perceived religion, with its suppression of violence, as mediator of the societal and personal, the public and the private, conflicts between Eros and Thanatos , the forces of life and death.
In a footnote of his work, Analysis of a Phobia in a Five year old Boy , Freud theorized that the universal fear of castration was provoked in the uncircumcised when they perceived circumcision and that this was "the deepest unconscious root of anti-Semitism ".
Freud's legacy, though a highly contested area of controversy, was described by Stephen Frosh as "one of the strongest influences on twentieth-century thought, its impact comparable only to that of Darwinism and Marxism.
Though not the first methodology in the practice of individual verbal psychotherapy,  Freud's psychoanalytic system came to dominate the field from early in the twentieth century, forming the basis for many later variants.
While these systems have adopted different theories and techniques, all have followed Freud by attempting to achieve psychic and behavioral change through having patients talk about their difficulties.
Psychoanalysis also remains influential within many contemporary schools of psychotherapy and has led to innovative therapeutic work in schools and with families and groups.
The neo-Freudians , a group including Alfred Adler , Otto Rank , Karen Horney , Harry Stack Sullivan and Erich Fromm , rejected Freud's theory of instinctual drive, emphasized interpersonal relations and self-assertiveness, and made modifications to therapeutic practice that reflected these theoretical shifts.
Adler originated the approach, although his influence was indirect due to his inability to systematically formulate his ideas.
Neo-Freudian analysis places more emphasis on the patient's relationship with the analyst and less on exploration of the unconscious. Carl Jung believed that the collective unconscious , which reflects the cosmic order and the history of the human species, is the most important part of the mind.
It contains archetypes , which are manifested in symbols that appear in dreams, disturbed states of mind, and various products of culture.
Jungians are less interested in infantile development and psychological conflict between wishes and the forces that frustrate them than in integration between different parts of the person.
The object of Jungian therapy was to mend such splits. Jung focused in particular on problems of middle and later life.
His objective was to allow people to experience the split-off aspects of themselves, such as the anima a man's suppressed female self , the animus a woman's suppressed male self , or the shadow an inferior self-image , and thereby attain wisdom.
Jacques Lacan approached psychoanalysis through linguistics and literature. Lacan believed Freud's essential work had been done prior to and concerned the interpretation of dreams, neurotic symptoms, and slips, which had been based on a revolutionary way of understanding language and its relation to experience and subjectivity, and that ego psychology and object relations theory were based upon misreadings of Freud's work.
For Lacan, the determinative dimension of human experience is neither the self as in ego psychology nor relations with others as in object relations theory , but language.
Lacan saw desire as more important than need and considered it necessarily ungratifiable. Wilhelm Reich developed ideas that Freud had developed at the beginning of his psychoanalytic investigation but then superseded but never finally discarded.
These were the concept of the Actualneurosis and a theory of anxiety based upon the idea of dammed-up libido. In Freud's original view, what really happened to a person the "actual" determined the resulting neurotic disposition.
Freud applied that idea both to infants and to adults. In the former case, seductions were sought as the causes of later neuroses and in the latter incomplete sexual release.
Unlike Freud, Reich retained the idea that actual experience, especially sexual experience, was of key significance. By the s, Reich had "taken Freud's original ideas about sexual release to the point of specifying the orgasm as the criteria of healthy function.
The key idea of gestalt therapy is that Freud overlooked the structure of awareness, "an active process that moves toward the construction of organized meaningful wholes Gestalt therapy usually takes place in groups, and in concentrated "workshops" rather than being spread out over a long period of time; it has been extended into new forms of communal living.
Arthur Janov 's primal therapy , which has been an influential post-Freudian psychotherapy, resembles psychoanalytic therapy in its emphasis on early childhood experience, but has also differences with it.
While Janov's theory is akin to Freud's early idea of Actualneurosis, he does not have a dynamic psychology but a nature psychology like that of Reich or Perls, in which need is primary while wish is derivative and dispensable when need is met.
Despite its surface similarity to Freud's ideas, Janov's theory lacks a strictly psychological account of the unconscious and belief in infantile sexuality.
While for Freud there was a hierarchy of danger situations, for Janov the key event in the child's life is awareness that the parents do not love it.
Ellen Bass and Laura Davis, co-authors of The Courage to Heal , are described as "champions of survivorship" by Frederick Crews , who considers Freud the key influence upon them, although in his view they are indebted not to classic psychoanalysis but to "the pre-psychoanalytic Freud Research projects designed to test Freud's theories empirically have led to a vast literature on the topic.
In , when the psychologist Saul Rosenzweig sent Freud reprints of his attempts to study repression, Freud responded with a dismissive letter stating that "the wealth of reliable observations" on which psychoanalytic assertions were based made them "independent of experimental verification.
Greenberg concluded in that some of Freud's concepts were supported by empirical evidence. Their analysis of research literature supported Freud's concepts of oral and anal personality constellations, his account of the role of Oedipal factors in certain aspects of male personality functioning, his formulations about the relatively greater concern about loss of love in women's as compared to men's personality economy, and his views about the instigating effects of homosexual anxieties on the formation of paranoid delusions.
They also found limited and equivocal support for Freud's theories about the development of homosexuality.
They found that several of Freud's other theories, including his portrayal of dreams as primarily containers of secret, unconscious wishes, as well as some of his views about the psychodynamics of women, were either not supported or contradicted by research.
Reviewing the issues again in , they concluded that much experimental data relevant to Freud's work exists, and supports some of his major ideas and theories.
Other viewpoints include those of Hans Eysenck , who writes in Decline and Fall of the Freudian Empire that Freud set back the study of psychology and psychiatry "by something like fifty years or more",  and Malcolm Macmillan, who concludes in Freud Evaluated that "Freud's method is not capable of yielding objective data about mental processes".
Cohen regards Freud's Interpretation of Dreams as a revolutionary work of science, the last such work to be published in book form. William Domhoff has disputed claims of Freudian dream theory being validated.
The philosopher Karl Popper , who argued that all proper scientific theories must be potentially falsifiable , claimed that Freud's Psychoanalytic Theories were presented in unfalsifiable form, meaning that no experiment could ever disprove them.
Scruton nevertheless concluded that psychoanalysis is not genuinely scientific, on the grounds that it involves an unacceptable dependence on metaphor.
In a study of psychoanalysis in the United States, Nathan Hale reported on the "decline of psychoanalysis in psychiatry" during the years — Research in the emerging field of neuropsychoanalysis , founded by neuroscientist and psychoanalyst Mark Solms ,  has proved controversial with some psychoanalysts criticising the very concept itself.
Psychoanalysis has been interpreted as both radical and conservative. By the s, it had come to be seen as conservative by the European and American intellectual community.
Critics outside the psychoanalytic movement, whether on the political left or right, saw Freud as a conservative. Fromm had argued that several aspects of psychoanalytic theory served the interests of political reaction in his The Fear of Freedom , an assessment confirmed by sympathetic writers on the right.
In Freud: The Mind of the Moralist , Philip Rieff portrayed Freud as a man who urged men to make the best of an inevitably unhappy fate, and admirable for that reason.
Brown in Life Against Death Marcuse criticized neo-Freudian revisionism for discarding seemingly pessimistic theories such as the death instinct, arguing that they could be turned in a utopian direction.
Freud's theories also influenced the Frankfurt School and critical theory as a whole. Freud has been compared to Marx by Reich, who saw Freud's importance for psychiatry as parallel to that of Marx for economics,  and by Paul Robinson, who sees Freud as a revolutionary whose contributions to twentieth century thought are comparable in importance to Marx's contributions to nineteenth century thought.
Fromm nevertheless credits Freud with permanently changing the way human nature is understood. They believe this began with Freud's development of the theory of the Oedipus complex, which they see as idealist.
Jean-Paul Sartre critiques Freud's theory of the unconscious in Being and Nothingness , claiming that consciousness is essentially self-conscious.
Sartre also attempts to adapt some of Freud's ideas to his own account of human life, and thereby develop an "existential psychoanalysis" in which causal categories are replaced by teleological categories.
Adorno considers Edmund Husserl , the founder of phenomenology, to be Freud's philosophical opposite, writing that Husserl's polemic against psychologism could have been directed against psychoanalysis.
Several scholars see Freud as parallel to Plato , writing that they hold nearly the same theory of dreams and have similar theories of the tripartite structure of the human soul or personality, even if the hierarchy between the parts of the soul is almost reversed.
Whereas Plato saw a hierarchy inherent in the nature of reality, and relied upon it to validate norms, Freud was a naturalist who could not follow such an approach.
Both men's theories drew a parallel between the structure of the human mind and that of society, but while Plato wanted to strengthen the super-ego, which corresponded to the aristocracy, Freud wanted to strengthen the ego, which corresponded to the middle class.
Thomas's belief in the existence of an "unconscious consciousness" and his "frequent use of the word and concept 'libido' — sometimes in a more specific sense than Freud, but always in a manner in agreement with the Freudian use.
Auden in his collection Another Time. Literary critic Harold Bloom has been influenced by Freud. The decline in Freud's reputation has been attributed partly to the revival of feminism.
Freud is also criticized by Shulamith Firestone and Eva Figes. In The Dialectic of Sex , Firestone argues that Freud was a "poet" who produced metaphors rather than literal truths; in her view, Freud, like feminists, recognized that sexuality was the crucial problem of modern life, but ignored the social context and failed to question society itself.
Firestone interprets Freud's "metaphors" in terms of the facts of power within the family. Figes tries in Patriarchal Attitudes to place Freud within a " history of ideas ".
Juliet Mitchell defends Freud against his feminist critics in Psychoanalysis and Feminism , accusing them of misreading him and misunderstanding the implications of psychoanalytic theory for feminism.
Mitchell helped introduce English-speaking feminists to Lacan. Gallop compliments Mitchell for her criticism of feminist discussions of Freud, but finds her treatment of Lacanian theory lacking.
Irigaray, who claims that "the cultural unconscious only recognizes the male sex", describes how this affects "accounts of the psychology of women".
Psychologist Carol Gilligan writes that "The penchant of developmental theorists to project a masculine image, and one that appears frightening to women, goes back at least to Freud.
Gilligan notes that Nancy Chodorow , in contrast to Freud, attributes sexual difference not to anatomy but to the fact that male and female children have different early social environments.
Chodorow, writing against the masculine bias of psychoanalysis, "replaces Freud's negative and derivative description of female psychology with a positive and direct account of her own.
Toril Moi has developed a feminist perspective on psychoanalysis proposing that it is a discourse that "attempts to understand the psychic consequences of three universal traumas: the fact that there are others, the fact of sexual difference, and the fact of death".
The film is focused on Freud's early life from to , and combines multiple case studies of Freud into single ones, and multiple friends of his into single characters.
The play is a reworking of an earlier unfilmed screenplay. More fanciful employments of Freud in fiction are The Seven-Per-Cent Solution by Nicholas Meyer , which centers on an encounter between Freud and the fictional detective Sherlock Holmes , with a main part of the plot seeing Freud helping Holmes overcome his cocaine addiction.
Mark St. Germain 's play Freud's Last Session imagines a meeting between C. The play is focused on the two men discussing religion and whether it should be seen as a sign of neurosis.
Lewis and his brother during the wartime London air-raids, later married Freud's grandson Clement Freud. Freud is employed to more comic effect in the film Lovesick in which Alec Guinness plays Freud's ghost who gives love advice to a modern psychiatrist played by Dudley Moore.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Freud disambiguation. Austrian neurologist and founder of psychoanalysis. Sigmund Freud by Max Halberstadt, c.
Hampstead , London , United Kingdom. List of psychoanalysts List of psychoanalytical theorists. Important figures. Important works.
Schools of thought. Boston Graduate School of Psychoanalysis. See also. Child psychoanalysis Depth psychology Psychodynamics Psychoanalytic theory.
Main article: Unconscious mind. Main article: The Interpretation of Dreams. Main article: Psychosexual development. Main article: Id, ego and super-ego.
Main articles: Libido , Death drive , and Repetition compulsion. Main article: Freud and religion. See also: Freudo-Marxism.
Main article: Sigmund Freud bibliography. Psychology portal. Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 28 December Retrieved 8 June Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. Fifty Key Thinkers in Psychology. New York: Random House , pp. For the influence on psychology, see The Psychologist , December Archived 31 December at the Wayback Machine For the influence of psychoanalysis in the humanities, see J.
For the debate on efficacy, see Fisher, S. Freud and Psychoanalysis. Milton Keynes: Open University Press. BJPsych International. Freud's Women. London: Penguin Books, , pp.
Sigmund Freud. London: Routledge. SUNY Press. For Jakob's Torah study, see Meissner , p. For the date of the marriage, see Rice , p. Margolis, M. Psychoanal : 37— Archived from the original on 23 February Retrieved 17 January Edited and abridged by Lionel Trilling and Stephen Marcus.
Harmondsworth: Penguin Books p. The Guardian. Retrieved 16 May In this period he published three papers: Freud, Sigmund Freud, Sigmund Freud, Sigmund April For a more in-depth analysis: Gamwell, Lynn ; Solms, Mark Archived from the original PDF on 30 August The New York Times.
Archived from the original on 13 June Retrieved 4 November The International Journal of Psycho-Analysis. February Int J Psychoanal. A close study of Schopenhauer's central work, 'The World as Will and Representation', reveals that a number of Freud's most characteristic doctrines were first articulated by Schopenhauer.
Schopenhauer's concept of the will contains the foundations of what in Freud became the concepts of the unconscious and the id.
Schopenhauer's writings on madness anticipate Freud's theory of repression and his first theory of the aetiology of neurosis. Schopenhauer's work contains aspects of what become the theory of free association.
And most importantly, Schopenhauer articulates major parts of the Freudian theory of sexuality. These correspondences raise some interesting questions about Freud's denial that he even read Schopenhauer until late in life.
New York and London: Routledge Press, , pp. Once Freud reached England, it was immediately placed directly over the analytical couch in his London rooms.
Psychoanalysis and Contemporary Thought". Thought : — Archived from the original on 19 July Retrieved 6 February Archived from the original on 9 May Retrieved 20 May The Assault on Truth.
Untreed Reads. Letters to Wilhelm Fliess, Drafts and Notes — London: Imago Reflecting Psychoanalysis. Narrative and Resolve in the Psychoanalytic Experience.
London: Karnac Books. Freud's Suppression of the Seduction Theory. London: Routledge, p. Loewenstein et al. New York: International Universities Press, , pp.
Interpreting Dreams. Penguin Books Limited. Affiliated Professor seems to me to be the best translation of professor extraordinarius, which position has the rank of full Professor, but without payment by the University.
Detroit: Wayne State University Press. Cassandra's daughter: a history of psychoanalysis. London: Karnac. New York: Basic Books.
In it, he declared that Freud's work heralded "a new era in psychology". Rose, Louis Psychoanalytic Quartery. Archived from the original on 9 March Makari, George Revolution in Mind: the Creation of Psychoanalysis Australian ed.
Carlton, Vic. Jap Bos trans. In Japp Boss and Leendert Groenendijk eds. New York. See Gay , page. Jung — A Biography. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books pp.
Six other members of the Viennese Psychoanalytic Society who attempted to retain links to both the Adlerian and Freudian camps were forced out after Freud insisted that they must choose one side or another.
New York: Columbia University Press, pp. London: John Murray. New York: Columbia University Press, p. London: Penguin Books, , p.
Freud: Darkness in the Midst of Vision. Wiley, , p. Bulletin of the History of Medicine. Ascari and A. Retrieved 2 September American Imago.
Archived PDF from the original on 22 February Retrieved 8 February Ernst L. Freud, Architect. In Joseph P. Merlino; Marilyn S. Jacobs; Judy Ann Kaplan; K.
Lynne Moritz eds. Freud at 21st century Essays on a Man of Genius. A Critical Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. The Life and Work of Josef Breuer.
Remembering Anna O. London: Routledge, Freud Evaluated: The Completed Arc. History of Psychiatry. Skues, Richard A. Sigmund Freud and the History of Anna O.
Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan, Archived from the original on 24 September Retrieved 20 September History of the Human Sciences.
Archived from the original on 3 November Esterson, Allen , Jeffrey Masson and Freud's seduction theory: a new fable based on old myths.
History of the Human Sciences , 11 1 , pp. History of Psychiatry , iv: 23—59; Esterson, Allen The Aetiology of Hysteria. Standard Edition , Vol.
Remembering Trauma , Harvard University Press, , pp. Was Freud a liar? Freud and the Question of Pseudoscience. Kate Freund was born in Topanga, California.
She grew up making short films with her younger brother Matthew Freund. She is a best known for her work with Channel She began submitting her short films to 's monthly festival in Filmography by Job Trailers and Videos.
The Evolution of Keanu Reeves. Share this page:. New Voice Actors Forever. Actors I want to work with. Do you have a demo reel?
Add it to your IMDbPage. How Much Have You Seen? How much of Kate Freund's work have you seen? Known For. Bosom Buddies Short post-production Kelci.
Linda Buckles voice. His efforts, along with those of German sexologist Rudolf Klimmer , helped decriminalize homosexuality in East Germany in Freund also contributed to the idea of a genetic origin of homosexuality by including in his book a study of identical twins who have almost always the same sexual orientation heterosexual or homosexual.
This part of his contribution is not widely known in the West. Freund received his M. He carried out post-doctoral research and later both research and clinical work at Charles University's Sexological Institute.
Freund fled to Canada in , in the wake of the Prague Spring. Freund then began plethysmography studies of male sexual orientation at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health then called the Clarke Institute of Psychiatry in Toronto , where much of the research and published data using PPG originated.
The Kurt Freund Laboratory at that centre is named after him. There was controversy regarding potential abuses of devices to measure sexual interests, following fears that it might lead to discrimination against gay men.
Phallometric testing has been shown, however, to be one of the most accurate, if not the single most accurate, methods of identifying the sexual offenders that are most likely to commit new sexual offenses against children.
Freund was diagnosed with cancer in and was a member of Dying with Dignity. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Kurt Freund. Chrudim , Austrian Bohemia.
Toronto, Ontario , Canada. Remembering Kurt Freund ATSA Forum. Michael W.vfc-lab 1 flo-coater® The unique design of the combination product container/Wurster processing insert and integrated solution pump eliminates the need for costly “add-ons”. The combination product container also allows for quick changeover and cleaning between processes. FREUND VICTORIA stands for a comprehensive range of top class gardening and winter tools for many applications. Product presentation. Our merchandising brings profit. We organize your tool merchandising displays and wall shelf modules according to your wishes, and those of your customers and the market. 10/15/ · German: ·plural of Freund· friends Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary.