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I sometimes use grey to describe any degree of ambiguity. Examples 1. They spoke openly and authentically on behalf of their sponsoring group but sought to conceal their physical location.
The latter spoke on behalf of the Sudan People's Liberation Army using the facilities of the state radio service in neighbouring Ethiopia.
Clandestine and Grey: These also concealed their location. But in contrast to the first category above they were silent or not fully explicit about their sponsors.
Many of the numerous clandestine radio stations that targeted Iran and Iraq in the s and s were clandestine and various shades of grey in some cases, dark grey to black.
Among those aimed at Iraq, one interesting group used a very powerful mediumwave AM transmitter in either Kuwait or Saudi Arabia.
This was first heard in carrying anti-Saddam material under a variety of fancy labels such as Radio Freedom a. In the transmitter began carrying a truly black operation, Iraqi Army Radio , which targeted dissident members of the Iraqi armed forces with material that included coded personal messages.
There were also various Soviet-bloc clandestine radio operations — black, grey and white — targeting non-communist parts of Europe during the Cold War, including those aimed at France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Turkey.
From the other side of the Cold War divide, the Voice of the Khmer station that attempted to undermine the Vietnamese occupation of Cambodia in the s was also black as it did not disclose its US backing.
Its clandestine status came from its claim to operate from "liberated" territory inside Cambodia when in fact it was based in neighbouring Thailand.
The anti-Mugabe Radio Truth of the s also fell into the black category. It posed as a voice of disaffected Zimbabweans but was in reality entirely a creation of South Africa.
Its broadcasts were therefore a good example of the PWE belief above that grey outlets "depend entirely on content and technique to achieve their object".
The various rebel-run stations during the Libyan civil war in also operated openly. The same went for the various Voice of Palestine stations operated by the PLO, broadcasting from the state broadcasting organisations of Arab countries.
In reality, it was fully controlled by the Soviet government and aimed at supporting Soviet foreign policy objectives.
Voice of the Coast , the British-run station in the Gulf in the s, was a light shade of grey. Non-Clandestine and Black: Radio Impacto , the anti-Sandinist station that broadcast to Nicaragua in the s from neighbouring Costa Rica, posed as a standard commercial radio station based in San Jose hence the non-clandestine status but it is widely assumed that it was covertly funded and directed by the US authorities.
Finally The few examples given above are just a tiny fraction of the many hundreds of clandestine, subversive, insurgent and dissident radio operations in the second half of the 20th century.
Their classifications along the clandestine to non-clandestine and black to white axes are in all cases my own subjective judgments. Material may be reproduced if attributed to Chris Greenway and any original source.
It said:. On clandestine broadcasting, the document said:. In addition to the two stations named, elsewhere in the Soviet bloc East Germany was at that time, , providing facilities for two clandestine radios broadcasting to Turkey.
In earlier years there had been other stations engaged in subversive "active measures" targeting Nato various countries and transmitting from East Germany, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland and Romania.
It was a fully "black" operation, seeking to hide completely its origin in the USSR. Its existence was never mentioned by the Soviet media.
Start of broadcasts. The station's launch might have been hastily organised by the USSR after its Vietnamese ally was attacked, or there might already have been plans for such broadcasts just waiting to be implemented if and when the opportunity or necessity arose.
Coordination with Vietnam? Vietnam and the USSR may have coordinated over the launch. Since April 12, a monitoring station in Seoul has been picking up Mandarin language broadcasts believed to be originating from the Vladivostok area.
But the broadcasters have pronounced Southeast Asian accents, leading to speculation that the Vietnamese may be cooperating with Soviets in operating the station, known as Ba Yi August 1 Radio.
Objectives and propaganda themes. It purported to speak on behalf of dissident members of the PLA. References to "our army" were frequent.
The objective of the broadcasts was to stimulate dissent among members of the military and encourage ill feeling towards China's senior leadership.
The August First Radio and its companion stations try to sound patriotic, staunchly Communist, anti-Western and sympathetic to army gripes.
They charge that Peking insulted the armed forces by giving the military last priority in the four modernizations, after industry, agriculture and science.
Targeting Deng Xiaoping. A particular focus of the broadcasts was Deng Xiaoping, who emerged after the death of Chairman Mao in to become China's paramount leader.
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